}}

You can use virtual addresses (VIPs) to make ports management easier. VIPs simplify inter-app communication and implement a reliable service-oriented architecture. VIPs map traffic from a single virtual address to multiple IP addresses and ports.

Definitions

containerPort: A container port specifies a port within a container. This is only necessary as part of a port mapping when using BRIDGE or USER mode networking with a Docker container.

hostPort: A host port specifies a port on the host to bind to. When used with BRIDGE or USER mode networking, you specify a port mapping from a host port to a container port. In HOST networking, requested ports are host ports by default. Note that only host ports are made available to a task through environment variables.

BRIDGE networking: used by Docker applications that specify BRIDGE mode networking. In this mode, container ports are mapped to host ports. In this mode, applications bind to the specified ports within the container and Docker networking binds to the specified ports on the host.

USER networking: used by Docker applications that specify USER mode networking. In this mode, container ports are mapped to host ports. In this mode, applications bind to the specified ports within the container and Docker networking binds to the specified ports on the host. USER network mode is expected to be useful when integrating with “user-defined” Docker networks. In the Mesos world such networks are often made accessible via CNI plugins used in concert with a Mesos CNI network isolator.

HOST networking: used by non-Docker Marathon applications and Docker applications that use HOST mode networking. In this mode, applications bind directly to one or more ports on the host machine.

portMapping: In Docker BRIDGE mode, a port mapping is necessary for every port that should be reachable from outside of your container. A port mapping is a tuple containing a host port, container port, service port and protocol. Multiple port mappings may be specified for a Marathon application; an unspecified hostPort defaults to 0 (meaning that Marathon will assign one at random). In Docker USER mode the semantic for hostPort slightly changes: hostPort is not required for USER mode and if left unspecified Marathon WILL NOT automatically allocate one at random. This allows containers to be deployed on USER networks that include containerPort and discovery information, but do NOT expose those ports on the host network (and by implication would not consume host port resources).

ports: The ports array is used to define ports that should be considered as part of a resource offer in HOST mode. It is necessary only if no port mappings are specified. Only one of ports and portDefinitions should be defined for an application.

portDefinitions: The portDefinitions array is used to define ports that should be considered as part of a resource offer. It is necessary only to define this array if you are using HOST networking and no port mappings are specified. This array is meant to replace the ports array, and makes it possible to specify a port name, protocol and labels. Only one of ports and portDefinitions should be defined for an application.

protocol: Protocol specifies the internet protocol to use for a port (e.g. tcp, udp or udp,tcp for both). This is only necessary as part of a port mapping when using BRIDGE or USER mode networking with a Docker container.

requirePorts: requirePorts is a property that specifies whether Marathon should specifically look for specified ports in the resource offers it receives. This ensures that these ports are free and available to be bound to on the Mesos agent. This does not apply to BRIDGE or USER mode networking.

servicePort: When you create a new application in Marathon (either through the REST API or the front end), you may assign one or more service ports to it. You can specify all valid port numbers as service ports or you can use 0 to indicate that Marathon should allocate free service ports to the app automatically. If you do choose your own service port, you have to ensure yourself that it is unique across all of your applications.

Random Port Assignment

Using the value 0 for any port settings indicates to Marathon that you would like a random port assignment. However, if containerPort is set to 0 within a portMapping, it is set to the same value as hostPort.

Environment Variables

Each host port value is exposed to the running application instance via environment variables $PORT0, $PORT1, etc. Each Marathon application is given a single port by default, so $PORT0 is always available. These variables are available inside a Docker container being run by Marathon too. Additionally, if the port is named NAME, it will also be accessible via the environment variable, $PORT_NAME.

When using BRIDGE or USER mode networking, be sure to bind your application to the containerPorts you have specified in your portMappings. However, if you have set containerPort to 0 then this will be the same as hostPort and you can use the $PORT environment variables.

Example Configuration

Host Mode

Host mode networking is the default networking mode for Docker containers and the only networking mode for non-Docker applications. Note that it not necessary to EXPOSE ports in your Dockerfile.

Enabling Host Mode

Host mode is enabled by default for containers. If you wish to be explicit, you can also specify it manually through the network property:

  "container": {
    "type": "DOCKER",
    "docker": {
      "image": "my-image:1.0",
      "network": "HOST"
    }
  },

For non-Docker applications, you don’t need to specify anything.

Specifying Ports

You can specify the ports that are available through the ports array:

    "ports": [
        0, 0, 0
    ],

Or through the portDefinitions array:

    "portDefinitions": [
      {"port": 0}, {"port": 0}, {"port": 0}
    ],

In this example, we specify three randomly assigned host ports which would then be available to our command via the environment variables $PORT0, $PORT1 and $PORT2. Marathon will also randomly assign three service posts in addition to these three host ports.

You can also specify specific service ports:

    "ports": [
        2001, 2002, 3000
    ],

Or:

    "portDefinitions": [
        {"port": 2001}, {"port": 2002}, {"port": 3000}
    ],

In this case, host ports $PORT0, $PORT1 and $PORT3 remain randomly assigned. However, the three service ports for this application are now 2001, 2002 and 3000.

In this example, as with the previous one, it is necessary to use a service discovery solution such as HAProxy to proxy requests from service ports to host ports.

If you want the applications service ports to be equal to its host ports, you can set requirePorts to true (requirePorts is false by default). This will tell Marathon to only schedule this application on agents which have these ports available:

    "ports": [
        2001, 2002, 3000
    ],
    "requirePorts" : true

The service and host ports (including the environment variables $PORT0, $PORT1, and $PORT2), are both now 2001, 2002 and 3000.

This property is useful if you don’t use a service discovery solution to proxy requests from service ports to host ports.

Defining the portDefinitions array allows you to specify a protocol, a name and labels for each port. When starting
new tasks, Marathon will pass this metadata to Mesos. Mesos will expose this information in the discovery field of the
task. Custom network discovery solutions can consume this field.

Example port definition requesting a dynamic tcp port named http with the label VIP_0 set to 10.0.0.1:80:

    "portDefinitions": [
        {
            "port": 0,
            "protocol": "tcp",
            "name": "http",
            "labels": {"VIP_0": "10.0.0.1:80"}
        }
    ],

The port field is mandatory. The protocol, name and labels fields are optional. A port definition in which only
the port field is set is equivalent to an element of the ports array.

Note that only the ports array and the portDefinitions array should not be specified together, unless all their
elements are equivalent.

Referencing Ports

You can reference host ports in the Dockerfile for our fictitious app as follows:

CMD ./my-app --http-port=$PORT0 --https-port=$PORT1 --monitoring-port=$PORT2

Alternatively, if you aren’t using Docker or had specified a cmd in your Marathon application definition, it works in the same way:

    "cmd": "./my-app --http-port=$PORT0 --https-port=$PORT1 --monitoring-port=$PORT2"

Bridge Mode

Bridge mode networking allows you to map host ports to ports inside your container and is only applicable to Docker containers. It is particularly useful if you are using a container image with fixed port assignments that you can’t modify. Note that it not necessary to EXPOSE ports in your Dockerfile.

Enabling Bridge Mode

You need to specify bridge mode through the network property:

  "container": {
    "type": "DOCKER",
    "docker": {
      "image": "my-image:1.0",
      "network": "BRIDGE"
    }
  },

Enabling User Mode

You need to specify user mode through the network property:

  "container": {
    "type": "DOCKER",
    "docker": {
      "image": "my-image:1.0",
      "network": "USER"
    }
  },
  "ipAddress": {
    "networkName": "someUserNetwork"
  }

Specifying Ports

Port mappings are similar to passing -p into the Docker command line and specify a relationship between a port on the host machine and a port inside the container. In this case, the portMappings array is used instead of the ports or portDefinitions array used in host mode.

Port mappings are specified inside the portMappings object for a container:

  "container": {
    "type": "DOCKER",
    "docker": {
      "image": "my-image:1.0",
      "network": "BRIDGE",
      "portMappings": [
        { "containerPort": 0, "hostPort": 0 },
        { "containerPort": 0, "hostPort": 0 },
        { "containerPort": 0, "hostPort": 0 }
      ]
    }
  },

In this example, we specify 3 mappings. A value of 0 will ask Marathon to randomly assign a value for hostPort. In this case, setting containerPort to 0 will cause it to have the same value as hostPort. These values are available inside the container as $PORT0, $PORT1 and $PORT2 respectively.

Alternatively, if our process running in the container had fixed ports, we might do something like the following:

  "container": {
    "type": "DOCKER",
    "docker": {
      "image": "my-image:1.0",
      "network": "BRIDGE",
      "portMappings": [
        { "containerPort": 80, "hostPort": 0 },
        { "containerPort": 443, "hostPort": 0 },
        { "containerPort": 4000, "hostPort": 0 }
      ]
    }
  },

In this case, Marathon will randomly allocate host ports and map these to ports 80, 443 and 4000 respectively. It’s important to note that the $PORT variables refer to the host ports. In this case, $PORT0 will be set to the value of hostPort for the first mapping and so on.

Specifying Protocol

You can also specify the protocol for these port mappings. The default is tcp:

  "container": {
    "type": "DOCKER",
    "docker": {
      "image": "my-image:1.0",
      "network": "BRIDGE",
      "portMappings": [
        { "containerPort": 80, "hostPort": 0, "protocol": "tcp" },
        { "containerPort": 443, "hostPort": 0, "protocol": "tcp" },
        { "containerPort": 4000, "hostPort": 0, "protocol": "udp" }
      ]
    }
  },
Specifying Service Ports

By default, Marathon will be creating service ports for each of these ports and assigning them random values. Service ports are used by service discovery solutions and it is often desirable to set these to well known values. You can do this by setting a servicePort for each mapping:

  "container": {
    "type": "DOCKER",
    "docker": {
      "image": "my-image:1.0",
      "network": "BRIDGE",
      "portMappings": [
        { "containerPort": 80, "hostPort": 0, "protocol": "tcp", "servicePort": 2000 },
        { "containerPort": 443, "hostPort": 0, "protocol": "tcp", "servicePort": 2001 },
        { "containerPort": 4000, "hostPort": 0, "protocol": "udp", "servicePort": 3000 }
      ]
    }
  },

In this example, the host ports $PORT0, $PORT1 and $PORT3 remain randomly assigned. However, the service ports for this application are now 2001, 2002 and 3000. An external proxy, like HAProxy, should be configured to route from the service ports to the host ports.

Referencing Ports

If you set containerPort to 0, then you should specify ports in the Dockerfile for our fictitious app as follows:

CMD ./my-app --http-port=$PORT0 --https-port=$PORT1 --monitoring-port=$PORT2

However, if you’ve specified containerPort values, you simply use the same values in the Dockerfile:

CMD ./my-app --http-port=80 --https-port=443 --monitoring-port=4000

Alternatively, you can specify a cmd in your Marathon application definition, it works in the same way as before:

    "cmd": "./my-app --http-port=$PORT0 --https-port=$PORT1 --monitoring-port=$PORT2"

Or, if you’ve used fixed values:

    "cmd": "./my-app --http-port=80 --https-port=443 --monitoring-port=4000"